The term diet comes from (Greek) dίaita and was originally used to mean “life” / “lifestyle”. The dietetics deals still scientifically with the “right” diet and lifestyle. Diets are used primarily for two reasons: first, the weight-dependent or gain, secondary to treatment of diseases (English “diet” = to the needs of the patient parked food, health food). Colloquially, the term usually equated with a low-calorie diet (reducing diet) for weight loss and is thus a synonym for slimming.
Contents [ Hide ]
1.1 reduction diets
2.1 auto insurance quote diets to disease treatment (health food)
2 Selection of diets
4 Web Links
5 Notes and references
Since Hippocrates as a special diet is nutrition of the people described in the longer term or permanent basis, a special selection of food is consumed.
Today, as the diet either a short-term changes in diet for weight reduction (eg obesity ), in some cases also to weight gain (eg, anorexia ) or a longer-term to long-term dietary changes to support the treatment of a disease (eg celiac disease , lactose intolerance , fructose intolerance ) denotes .
Fasting means abstaining from food, however the transient from religious (Islam in Ramadan , in the Christian church, the pre-Easter Lent ) or health motivation (the fasting ).
Each form of diet, whether for weight loss, be it for supportive treatment of disease, based on a reduction or increase in the relative proportion of a food ingredient ( carbohydrates , fats , proteins , vitamins , minerals ) compared to the other and / or a decrease or increase of the applied total amount of energy ( ” calories “) and possibly a change in the balance sheet of fluid intake.
A low-calorie diet aimed at the reduction of body weight. There are many weight reduction diets that differ in their methods sometimes differ considerably. Few diets have been scientifically tested. The development and promotion of the reduction diets is not only the changes in scientific knowledge, but also fashions and ideologies subject. Some diets are therefore in medicine as unproven or even considered harmful.
Following the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society and the German Society of Nutrition reduction diets should only briefly, in extreme forms only under medical supervision be made. General consensus Denver Divorce Attorney that a low-calorie diet can only have lasting success if you follow a permanent change of diet, in which the energy balance of the body is balanced, ie, in no more energy supplied to the form of food is, Criminal Defense Attorney Chicago is when the body needs. A change in lifestyle, to wholesome nutrition and increased physical activity is considered advisable. On returning to old eating and lifestyle habits, there is usually a rebound in body weight , the so-called yo-yo effect , because the body is strong unterkalorischen diets on the metabolic hunger surrounded.
There are many diets with different concepts. Currently, the most well known diets to low carb , low fat , food combining , or the glycemic index is based.
According to a 2005 in mice study conducted study by the German Institute of Human Nutrition is a link between the consumption of fruit sugar (fructose) and obesity, which is not due to the increased caloric intake, but the fact that fructose affects the metabolic activity and thus the accumulation of body fat favored. 
Diets to disease treatment (health food)
Diets are as an individual measure or in addition to medical and possibly surgical therapy for the treatment of diseases used. With the development of effective nutritional strategies are employed to nutritional medicine .
Until the 1980s, gave it almost every disease has its own diet. Today, for most diseases, as well as for the general population, one that possibly modified, lactovegetabile whole foods (see above) is recommended in conjunction with physical activity. Especially in the treatment of diabetes occurred since the 90s of the 20th century, a paradigm shift that led away from a very regimented diet to an almost complete release of the dietary recommendations.
The dietary recommendations are subject to constant, scientifically justified changes and are guidelines of medical societies such as the German Society for Nutritional Medicine published. Diets to disease treatment should be made especially in the initial phase under medical supervision.
Selection of diets
Blood Type Diet
Cabbage Soup Diet
South Beach diet
The Hacker’s Diet
Examples of diseases that favor when dietary healing or improving the course are:
Obesity – calorie diet
pathological underweight , eg anorexia – calorie-enriched diet
High blood pressure denver martial arts – reduced salt
Organ disease ( liver cirrhosis , advanced renal failure , chronic inflammatory bowel disease )
Food intolerance ( celiac disease , lactose intolerance , food allergy , fructose intolerance )
Metabolic disease ( gout , diabetes mellitus )
In severe diseases such as cancer can be a diet only a supportive therapy. With eating disorders is at least initially, concomitant psychotherapy required.
(Redirected from Anabolic Diet )
Pie charts of the composition of different food concepts:
typical Western diet (equivalent to the DGE recommendation with approximately 50% carbohydrate), the Atkins diet in the introductory phase, Ketogenic diet with 4:1 ratio of fat to carbohydrates / proteins , medium-chain triglycerides (MCT ) ketogenic diet 
The ketogenic diet is a limited carbohydrate, protein and calorie balance sheet and therefore form the high-fat dietary nutrition that mimics the starvation metabolism in certain aspects. This diet is the body’s energy requirement is no longer fat and glucose but only of fat in the body and it built up a substitute for glucose, the eponymous ketone bodies . A ketogenic diet is a treatment process, especially in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy , glucose transporter malfunction (for example, GLUT1 deficiency syndrome ) and Pyruvatdehydrogenasemangel used. They must be calculated individually and monitored by a doctor. A special form of non-medically induced ketogenic diet are so-called low-carb diets like the Atkins diet .
Contents [ Hide ]
3 calculation, execution
1.3 MCT-based ketogenic diet
4 side effects
5 Notes and references
7 External links
Proteins in metabolism may be approximately 50% and fats only about 10% (namely its glycerol content ) as the various carbohydrates to glucose to be converted to maintain blood sugar levels and thus provide primarily the brain with energy. In the fasting state, the body attacks its first stores of glycogen (a storage form of carbohydrates) is back and then shifting to a starvation metabolism. This is among other things, characterized in that fatty acids in the liver to ketone bodies are removed, then the energy needs, especially of the brain (which is otherwise dependent on glucose as sole energy source), are intended to cover efficiently in an alternative way. The desired condition dui lawyer chicago is called ketosis .
In addition to patients with glucose transporter malfunction or a Pyruvatdehydrogenasemangel , in patients with epilepsy , in which not more than two anticonvulsant medications previously worked enough have and where a surgical intervention is not in Phen375 question, the use of the ketogenic diet should be considered. It can be applied to adolescents with different types of seizures, epilepsy and causes age ranges, however, seems beyond the approximately 8 to 12 Age becoming less effective and harder to be feasible. For infants under one year, it is equally applicable, as in children beyond the first year of life. There are good individual experiences in the treatment of Rett syndrome , the Landau-Kleffner syndrome and Ohtahara syndrome .
After potassium bromide (1857) and phenobarbital (1910) The ketogenic diet was first introduced in 1921 specifically as a third time anticonvulsant therapy option. It was observed that low hunger in many epilepsy patients seems to fit the situation and tried to combine the state of carbohydrate starvation in the absence of sufficient fat and protein intake.
For a ketogenic diet, the demand for energy (30-80 kcal / kg depending on age and energy expenditure) and the need for protein (0.7 to 2 g / kg depending on age) and then calculated the so-called “ketogenic ratio ‘(typically 3-4 , 5: 1) set. The ketogenic ratio determines the weight ratio of fat to carbohydrates + proteins. A ketogenic ratio of 4:1 means, for example, that food to 80% by weight of fats must exist. Be accommodated in the remaining 20% by weight must be the amount of protein needed nationwide. Consequently, those carbohydrates are taken to ensure effective only in minimal amounts of ketosis maintain. A ketosis due to a random defect induced carbohydrate is broken by the low supply of surplus amounts of carbohydrates within a short time, which may again lead to more seizures. This strict diet regime requires a careful indication , some detailed knowledge and close cooperation between the treatment team and patients, their caregivers (eg parents) and their social environment. The diet prescribed by a physician must be repeatedly adapted to the course and the perceived need of it. The proper implementation of the dietary needs of the urine and / or Blutketose (similar to blood sugar monitoring for diabetics to monitor).
MCT-based ketogenic diet
Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) oil emulsion
In the 1960s it was discovered that mittelangkettige triglycerides (English: MCT) more ketone bodies, and thus energy to produce per unit in the body, as the predominantly long-chain triglycerides normal food fats.  MCTs are also absorbed more efficiently and faster than in the liver the (liver) portal vein instead of the lymphatic system transports.  advantage for patients of a ketogenic diet is the way the volume fraction of the carbohydrates is to increase slightly, to taste better and use it more acceptable to courts. Gastric and intestinal problems, however, is partially reported. In some American hospitals, the MCT diet replaced the classic ketogenic diet, although some also use more of a mixture of both. 
Temporary side effects are mainly digestive – or bowel problems . Furthermore, is sometimes more tired before, especially in the first two weeks of the metabolic conversion, while often better then waking follows. In addition, there are: refusing food or hunger and related psychological problems, hypercholesterolemia (coherent long-term studies of these side effects do not exist, a ketogenic diet is not set with a “fat pole” to the same because the calories are limited). Rare to very rare frequent infections, are platelet dysfunction with bleeding, hypocalcemia and cardiac arrhythmias (demaskiertes long QT syndrome ). Occasionally, kidney stones before (regular testing of blood on the Urinstix). Some unidentified rare metabolic disorders (especially defects of the Ketolyse and ketogenesis, fat loss disorders, carnitine deficiency syndromes, etc.) can be used in the initial phase of the ketogenic diet suddenly decompensate life threatening may, which is why an informed preliminary diagnostics / medical history , and (stationary) monitoring of the beginning necessary. Overall, the side effect profile is somewhat more favorable than in an intensive pharmacological anticonvulsant therapy.
According to a long-term study of the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center takes a long-term ketogenic diet to no adverse health effects such as cardiac, cardiovascular, liver or kidney problems. 
The Atkins diet chiropractic marketing , named after its inventor, Robert Atkins is a diet for the low-carb principle. It reduces the absorption of carbohydrates drastically at the beginning and uses fat and protein as the main energy source. This approach is in the opinion of the followers of the Atkins diet to force the body to fat for energy in ketone -body Containers transform.
Founded in 1989 by Atkins Atkins Nutritionals Inc. was a rapidly growing company that millions of people who are the low carbohydrate lifestyle had prescribed, supplied with a wide range of related products. After the ebbing of the “Atkins-wave” in the U.S. but it was steep downhill with the company. At 31 July 2005 denver injury lawyer a company spokesman announced that Atkins Nutritionals Inc. bankruptcy was pending.
Contents [ Hide ]
1 The principles of the Atkins diet
1.1 The ketosis
2.1 Phase I (Introduction diet)
1.3 Phase II (basic low-calorie diet)
4.1 Phase III (pre-maintenance diet)
1.5 Phase IV (life-maintenance diet)
2.3 Misconceptions about the diet
3 Notes and references
5 External links
The principles of the Atkins diet
As published in the 1970s, his Atkins diet book, was his motto, fat and protein are permitted, prohibited a lot of over 5 grams of carbohydrate per day during the 14-day initial phase 1 is He later modified this principle, so that carbohydrates are now in the initial phase in small amounts (up to 20 g per day) component of the diet. The low-carbohydrate diet is the blood sugar levels low. Vitamins and minerals to be absorbed by additional specimens. It is essential that the body store protein in contrast to carbohydrates can not, so that excess protein is excreted. Remains for energy, especially fat.
With the Atkins diet, there are four distinct phases that differ by different amounts of carbohydrate intake. People who are overweight should begin with Phase I in order as quickly as possible in the lipolysis , especially the so-called ketosis to come, is consumed in the body fat. The phases car transport 2-3 represent a approaching the amount of carbohydrate, wherein the client decreases still further. In Phase 4, the client eventually eat so many carbs that he neither from, nor increases. Phase 4 did Atkins diet as a life form, similar to today’s LOGI method.
It should, especially if one does not decrease further, be given to the calories. Sport is considered by Atkins in the first book “The Diet Revolution” as an essential element of the diet, even in the phases 2-3 recommended plenty of vegetables.
Atkins recommends supplements , vitamins and minerals should be included by adding supplements to not create a shortage.
Main article: ketosis
The body uses carbohydrates taken in order to transform it into energy. If no carbohydrates in the diet fed, so is the body’s metabolism of fat on utilization. It fatty acids in the liver as a glucose substitute in so-called ketone bodies transformed. Ketones generally accrue for each fasting , once the body to hunger metabolic switches. An increased concentration is known as ketosis, recognizable by a distinct bad breath as a result of the metabolic product acetone . Increased ketone bodies in the blood are said to affect appetite-inhibiting. Derived from the word ketosis’ denote the Atkins followers as “Ketarier”.
Phase I (Introduction diet)
Here, 14 days should be just long to eat daily to 20 grams of carbohydrates. According to Atkins, meat offering in addition to eggs, the optimum combination of amino acids . Even soy products can be used. The allowable amount of carbohydrate should be taken as a salad and vegetables to prevent constipation. Bread is prohibited.
It is recommended to deny the Atkins diet with a doctor to examine the changes in blood chemistry. The very small amount of carbohydrates, the body is forced quickly to make use of energy and fat. The resulting intermediate product appearing as ketone bodies can with the help of so-called Ketosticks be detected in urine.
Phase II (basic low-calorie diet)
Following Phase I in the diet is continued for weeks now to be more nutrient-rich carbohydrates such as vegetables, nuts, berries, seeds and beans and pulses incorporated into the diet by modifying the diet week. This is the amount to be supplied daily carbohydrate grams each week increases by 5, so that increases in the first week to 25 g carbohydrates, in the second week to 30 grams and so on.
Once you no longer decreases the amount of carbohydrates should be reduced again g by 5. We know now the amount of carbohydrates that you should consume a maximum in order to decrease further. For most people should be the amount permanently 40-60 g.
Phase III (pre-maintenance diet)
Now the weight loss was virtually stagnant. This may again be increased the amount of carbohydrate grams each week by 10 or two days a week, an additional 20 to 30 g of food with high nutrient density for dietary supplements as long as you still decreasing.
Phase IV (life-maintenance diet)
Once the target weight is reached, the increased selection of “allowed” foods drastically: It is recommended that a lot of vegetables, lots of fruit and pasta and potatoes, but still enjoyed only in exceptional cases. Phase 4 is to be understood as a permanent diet.
In April 2003, the prestigious medical journal the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the first systematic analysis of data from 96 relevant studies (from 2503 Articles 1966-2003) regarding the efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets. Results of this meta-analysis (ie a study that summarizes the current state of research) was the finding of insufficient data available in the research, a sound recommendation for or against low-carb diets with respect to making safe and effective broader population groups, especially for high-carbohydrate-reduced diets, long periods of time, and older patients. 
In some studies, however, positive effects were found. In a randomized comparative study of four diets (Atkins diet, Zone , Ornish , and a traditional low-fat diet), which was published in 2007 in JAMA, the 300 subjects were initially eight weeks of training in each of the four dietary approaches, in fact the following year, both the weight loss as well as the development of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases studied. The study found that the subjects lost the Atkins group of 4.7 kg in twelve months, the most weight. The study notes, however, that this weight loss is relatively small. There were no adverse effects on cholesterol – and insulin levels determined and the values for the risk factors for high blood pressure, blood lipid levels and blood sugar levels were either indistinguishable from other diet groups, or even better. The question is whether the development is better if the risk factors in the Atkins group to the larger weight loss or restriction of carbohydrates could not answer the study’s director. 
A meta-analysis of 2008 in the journal Obesity Rev also confirmed the effect of carbohydrate-reduced diets while health safety  , as well as a comparative study in 2008  . A U.S. meta-analysis of 2010 in humans showed that an increased amount of saturated fatty acids is in the diet, as recommended by the Atkins diet has no effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) and strokes. 
For several years, performed in Berlin at the Charité-Campus Benjamin Franklin, a carbohydrate-restricted diet under medical supervision. At regular intervals, which are blood gases , the cholesterol , the blood sugar and basal metabolic rate investigated. In addition, more than once glucose tolerance test performed to determine how well the pancreas does.
Recent studies suggest a new mechanism of action of the Atkins diet is discussed, not (just) because of the change in the metabolism of ketone bodies to lose weight subjects, but because their food intake due to a stronger and earlier satiety reduced. Perhaps those concerned arise by reason of low-carbohydrate diet to an earlier feeling of satiety, the underlying biochemical mechanism is still unclear. It is also believed that the very high protein diet is responsible for this.   Rachel L. Batterham of scientists showed that a satiety hormone is produced when protein is absorbed by the body. 
The Atkins diet is controversial and is considered by many nutritional experts and by the German Nutrition Society rejected as too one-sided and potentially harmful.   The fat content of the Atkins diet is over 50 percent of the diet is so loud DGE recommendation is not balanced.  apply the same criticism as other low-carb diets.
“[...] A limited intake of whole grain breads and cereals, fruits and vegetables is not a balanced diet dar. The absence of these food groups may increase the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease. The carbohydrate content of the diet is below the minimum that the body needs to supply to the brain and muscles with sugar. Individuals who underwent the Atkins diet suffered significantly more frequent in muscle cramps, diarrhea, seizures, general weakness and rashes as persons under the recommended low-fat diet. ”
- Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Angela Harper. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or at effective tool for weight loss?. Lancet 2004; 364: 897 
The nutrition is currently assumed that a ketogenic diet lead to low-carb diets on various health disorders and can damage, including renal failure , liver damage , acne and constipation . A longitudinal study of 2010 children and young adults suggests, however, a wholesomeness ketogenic diet also over longer periods. 
In 2005, the result of American scientists was published, that the Atkins diet because of the Ketosewirkung to a significant increase in methylglyoxal production leads. This chemical compound is attributed to cell toxicity and can lead, especially in diabetics to vascular and tissue damage. Individual cases of life-threatening acidosis are known. 
This article or section is not sufficient with subsequent documents (such as detailed records ) equipped. The information in question may therefore be removed soon. Please help Wikipedia by you researching the information and paste it good evidence. For further details, may be on the talk page or specify the version history. Please remove this last warning markings.
Patients with renal failure and diabetes, especially if the latter with metformin treatment is not recommended by doctors of the Atkins diet, since with them the resulting ketone bodies can be eliminated sufficiently by the kidneys and the risk of acidosis , acidosis of the blood threatening .
Misconceptions about the diet
There is widespread the erroneous opinion that the t shirt design Atkins diet encourages the consumption of unlimited amounts of fat meals and cheese. This is the key thesis of the Enlightenment, on the Atkins is directed in the current revision of his book. Although the Atkins diet does not limit calories or Bankruptcy absolute values for protein, Atkins points out in his book points out that this plan is “not a license to cramming” is. The director for research and education at Atkins Nutritionals, Collette Heimowitz told that “simplify the media and opponents of the Atkins diet often sensationalist than the much-steak-like-you-eat-you-diet. This is not true. “
Another common misconception arises from confusion between the initiation phase and during the rest of the diet. The first two weeks of the Atkins diet with only 20 grams of carbohydrates allowed per day, severely. Atkins says that you can stay during the diet without the risk of some months in the lead-in period, if you want to lose Bins much weight. The introduction, however, is merely a phase in order to accustom the body fat and to the cravings for food still unacceptable. Gradually, the carbohydrate intake is increased in order to slow the loss of weight and more acceptable food (berries, more dairy products, nuts, etc.) added. However, the carbohydrates still remain well below the USDA standard. Once the desired weight loss is achieved, the carbohydrate intake is again increased and brought into balance, so that the weight remains stable. The carbohydrate intake may be below or above the USDA standard, depending on individual metabolism, age and fitness level.
The so-called Hollywood Diet was developed in the 1920s in the U.S. for the former film stars. Supposedly it was from studio bosses to their female stars literally forced to take time for them to start turning on the desired weight. Main components of this diet are luxury foods such as lobster , shrimp and exotic fruits. carbohydrates are kept to a minimum, it is therefore a low-carb -diet.
The diet program involves more than 1000 calories per day before. Are on the menu, especially proteins (lean meat, fish), eggs, fruit and salads. In addition, there are certain rules which foods may be combined with what. fat and salt can be reduced compared to a normal mixed diet severely, just as carbohydrates. Potatoes, rice and noodles are forbidden, because in the 1920s were just carbohydrates as Chrome Wire Shelving “fattening”. The information contained in exotic fruit enzymes are as fat burners work. A promise is a weight loss of several pounds per week.
Due to the low number of calories the body switches off after a few days the metabolism of a “emergency program” with low energy consumption, and the yo-yo effect after the diet is almost inevitable.
Enzymes are broken down in the stomach and can therefore develop any special effect.
The diet is not balanced and contains about 60 percent, a much too high in protein. Nutritionists recommend a maximum of 20 percent. Because relatively large number of eggs are eaten, which is also cholesterol intake is very high.
An increased protein intake leads to increased levels of uric acid and strain on the kidneys. The risk for the formation of urinary stones and kidney stones increases, as does the risk of gout attacks . Especially for people with kidney problems this diet is totally unsuitable.
There are basically all the criticisms, at the low-carb diets are called.
The Markert Diet is a diet for weight loss, which was invented by physician Dieter Markert and is marketed by him. This is strictly speaking not a diet but a form of therapeutic fasting . Markert now also has a “new Markert Diet” published in the drinking, not just a little is eaten.
Contents [ Hide ]
1 The principle
2 The theory
3 The new Markert Diet
5 External links
In the original Markert Diet, the mid-1990s came as a book on the market, it is a pure drinking fasting, be included in the daily maximum of 500 calories. Vegetable juices and non-drinking is a protein drink (eg Multan or Almased) that are sold in pharmacies. The preparations consist of soy and milk protein. In this way, each day about 60 grams of protein are included, what will prevent the otherwise inevitable breakdown of muscle protein during a diet. In addition to feelings of hunger can be prevented and the blood sugar levels are kept low. Markert promises that were broken during this diet per week up to 5 kilograms of pure body fat. The broth should antioxidants provide to free radicals to fight, because they inhibit the breakdown of fat, according to Markert. Important also is a sports program during the two-week fast phase to increase the energy demand.
According to Markert, the protein product has an influence on the hormone production is the thyroid gland , strengthens the will to stimulate the hormone triiodothyronine (T3) to form. The result was the boost metabolism and promote fat burning. When Markert Diet therefore decreasing the metabolic rate of the body not, as is generally observed during fasting. Markert claimed to be able to demonstrate this effect by their own studies. His published graphs disprove this claim, however, the T3 concentration decreases during fasting continuously in spite of protein supplement. An independent study also contradicts this theory.
Markert bases its calculations on weight loss through fat loss from a daily calorie requirement of 2,400 kilocalories, and the actual need is person to person and is, at least for most women is much lower.
After the fast phase, it purports to be possible to maintain the desired weight to no particular restrictions on food, provided regularly continue the protein preparation is taken. It’ll make to keep your metabolism high.
The new Markert Diet
Perhaps as a reaction to strong criticism from nutritionists Markert has become the new Diet Markert published. It is now no longer a detox program, but a unterkalorische diet. Breakfast and lunch will be eaten fruits and vegetables and vegetable fats. 40 percent of the diet are complex carbohydrates are, 20 percent from protein. Dinner consists of a protein drink with iodine and carnitine . In this way, about 1,000 kilocalories per day are included. Sport plays no role in this diet.
In the original Markert Diet is a diet like after the yo-yo effect almost inevitable, even with the new form of diet is probably due to the low caloric intake. There are no scientific studies showing that protein or diet has any effect on the thyroid hormone production, with the exception of the addition of iodine. The metabolism is not stimulated by this diet, fasting, he will even slow down significantly. In the initial phase of a diet is also always first glucose degraded. The Markert Diet also promotes a particular product, it is unnecessary, at least according to the diet, as with the usual mixed diet already adequate protein is absorbed.